As you travel on a patchwork section of Interstate 75 in Southwest Detroit and cross the River Rouge, this scene emerges before you: towers and tanks spreading out on both sides of the road, constituting a massive Marathon petroleum refinery.
Environmental justice is …
The Environmental Protection Agency defines environmental justice this way: “Environmental justice is the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations and policies. It will be achieved when everyone enjoys the same degree of protection from environmental and health hazards and equal access to the decision-making process to have a healthy environment in which to live, learn, and work.”
Although the refinery appears to dominate the landscape, the area also includes steel mills and a coal-burning power plant — all of which affect the nearby neighborhood of Boynton, which National Public Radio in 2017 identified as the most toxic neighborhood in Michigan. Like many neighborhoods that find their air, water and soil contaminated by heavy industry, Boynton is occupied primarily by people of color. And, in Boynton, as is the case in many environmental justice communities, many suffer from diseases that can be caused by exposure to toxic chemicals. This disproportionate distribution of environmental ills in communities that are economically disadvantaged or are communities of color, or both, is often referred to as environmental racism.
Last summer, members of the PC(USA)’s Committee on Mission Responsibility Through Investment (MRTI) got off the interstate in Detroit and into the Boynton community to find out how industrial pollution is dominating residents’ lives.
“We don’t have one illness; we have multiple, multiple illnesses,” said Emma Lockridge, who lives a few blocks from the refinery and has suffered kidney failure, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and respiratory issues. Lockridge’s sister, who lived nearby, died of kidney failure before the age of 50, and Lockridge recalls that their mother had wads of tissues stuffed into her robe pockets because of constant coughing. The coughing stopped, Lockridge said, when her mother moved into assisted living away from the neighborhood.
Day to day, the residents deal with the refinery odors and black film they say covers everything near the refinery. They also endure the constant traffic of tanker trucks pulling into the refinery to reload and then rumbling out, past the community center.
Lockridge and other residents would like to move rather than live next to the facility that has grown from a little gas company when their parents first bought homes in the neighborhood in the 1950s. But for many, those homes have decreased in value to the point that the residents can’t make enough money by selling their homes to buy a home in a better neighborhood. Among the 11 Boynton homes recently listed on Realtor.com, the average price was $40,927. Some houses are worth far less. And while the company has bought out homes in a predominantly white neighborhood nearby, Lockridge says the company has not given her and her neighbors the same consideration.
“It’s painful to listen to how egregiously they have been treated and disregarded as human,” said the Rev. Kerri Allen, vice chair of MRTI.
The environment and faith
MRTI implements the General Assembly’s policies on socially responsible investing, making sure financial investments are faithful investments that reflect the denomination’s justice work. It is just one of the many Presbyterian ministries listening to people like Lockridge as part of a focus on environmental racism.
“Every Presbyterian needs to care about this issue in the same way we care and act on hunger and poverty and racism — because in fact, environmental injustice is another complex embodiment of these and other societal injustices. And like most justice issues, communities that are already disadvantaged — on purpose, by corporate greed and unfair zoning laws — are disadvantaged in a multiplicity of ways,” said the Rev. Rebecca Barnes, coordinator of the Presbyterian Hunger Program (PHP).
Jessica Maudlin, PHP’s associate for sustainable living and earth care concerns, adds that environmental justice is “core for people of faith as we are called to eradicate the unjust ways some groups of people continually and unjustly bear the burden of societal waste, greed and sin.”
The 2018 General Assembly, in response to an overture from the Presbytery of Monmouth in central New Jersey, approved a policy calling for action to provide resources for churches and mid councils (synods and presbyteries) on environmental racism, along with information on environmentally sound operation of churches and other buildings. The approved overture also called on Presbyterians to “listen to the perspectives and voices of people most impacted by environmental racism, with awareness to cultural diversity domestically and internationally.” This builds on the 1995 General Assembly policy “Hazardous Waste, Race and the Environment,” which drew attention to environmental racism in the 1980s and 1990s.
MRTI, one of the Compassion, Peace & Justice (CPJ) ministries of the Presbyterian Mission Agency, in order to listen to impacted communities as instructed by the 2018 overture, visited Lockridge and her community in Detroit. In addition, part of a recent CPJ staff meeting included field study of the denomination’s home base, Louisville, revealing environmental justice issues in communities of color similar to what MRTI witnessed in Detroit.
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Source: By Rich Copley | Presbyterians Today