Black Southern Baptist History Said to Be ‘at a Crossroads’

In 1845, at the Southern Baptist Convention’s founding, approximately 1 in 3 Southern Baptist church members was African American. By 1900, there were virtually no black Southern Baptists. Today, about 1 in 5 Southern Baptist churches is predominantly non-Anglo, including some 3,400 predominately African American congregations.

The story behind those numbers, historians say, is a remarkable narrative of slavery, sin, emancipation, struggle and God’s grace — and a challenge for the SBC to do more in terms of racial reconciliation.

“The SBC today is at a crossroads,” said Gateway Seminary professor Leroy Gainey, one of the first African Americans to join an SBC seminary faculty in the mid-1980s. Although race relationships are strained, “I do believe in our convention,” Gainey told Baptist Press, “and I do believe we can do the right thing.”

Together, but not equal

When southern slaveholders and slavery sympathizers established the SBC in 1845, about 100,000 of the 350,000 Southern Baptist church members were African American, according to Baptist historian William Whitsitt’s estimate published in the 1895 SBC Annual. The estimate was based on Whittsitt’s extrapolation backward from 1852 statistics compiled by Baptist statistician J.L. Burrows.

Mostly slaves, those black Southern Baptists often were allowed to vote on matters of church discipline and admission of new members to their churches, wrote Southern Baptist Theological Seminary historian Greg Wills in his book “Democratic Religion.” They also served on church committees and were recognized as messengers by some Baptist associations.

In some churches, black membership dwarfed that of whites, wrote Baylor University historians Thomas Kidd and Barry Hankins in “Baptists in America,” citing as examples First Baptist Church in Richmond, Va.; First Baptist Church in Montgomery, Ala.; and First Baptist Church in Natchez, Miss.

Still, churches expressed their belief in the “social inferiority of African Americans” by making them sit in the worst seats during worship and treating them “like children,” wrote Wills, dean of Southern’s school of theology.

Gainey, J.M. Frost Professor of Educational Leadership at Gateway, said many of those slave church members likely were forced “to be a part of the church” and received incomplete biblical teaching, with sermons and Bible lessons aimed at maintaining subservience on the plantation.

Much of African Americans’ spiritual growth, Gainey said, occurred in “hush harbors,” secret churches in the woods that taught the whole counsel of God.

Consequently, when slaves gained their freedom at the end of the Civil War, black Southern Baptists “looked for a comparable emancipation in their church life,” wrote Baptist historian David Bebbington in “Baptists Through the Centuries.”

SBC ‘lost half its membership’?

Black Southern Baptists built their own churches beginning in the late 1860s, and many of those churches cooperated with white associations and state conventions. In the 1880s, for example, black Southern Baptist churches constituted a majority of congregations in cooperation with the Florida Baptist Convention, according to a 1985 issue of Ethnicity, a publication of the Baptist Sunday School Board (now LifeWay Christian Resources) intended to express a black Southern Baptist perspective.

Soon, however, African Americans began to form their own state conventions — beginning with North Carolina in 1866 — and their own national conventions, including the National Baptist Convention of the United States of America in 1895.

New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary historian Lloyd Harsch told BP the SBC may have “lost half its membership when African Americans left to form their own organizations.”

In 1880, the SBC reported nearly 1.7 million members in cooperating churches, according to statistical tables published in the Baptist Sunday School Board’s 1992 “Southern Baptist Handbook.” The number dropped to 934,000 by 1883 and did not rise back to 1880 levels until 1901 — despite “strong baptism numbers” during that period, Harsch said.

“I am convinced,” Harsch said, “that the primary reason [for the drop] is the loss of African American members.”

Statistical estimates published in SBC Annuals do not indicate the 1880s numerical decreases asserted by Sunday School Board statisticians. Nevertheless, Ethnicity, echoing the estimate of some scholars, surmised that “all of the black churches probably had withdrawn from the convention by 1900.”

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Source: Baptist Press